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RELEVANT PUBLICATIONS

In recent years, science-based assessment of animal welfare in wild and captive animals has benefited from increased interest in and research into consciousness, emotions, stress and pain.  Below are a selection of relevant publications useful in the research and application of captive animal welfare guidance.
These are divided into the sections outlined below.

General Welfare35%

Species Specific Guidelines40%

Enrichment and Training15%

Veterinary Legislation5%

Animal Husbandry and Management – General Welfare

  • Wildpro – http://www.wildlifeinformation.org/ – The Wildpro® Electronic Encyclopaedia is designed as a freely available, one-stop source of information on the health and management of captive and free-living wild animals, and emerging infectious diseases.

  • B Algers (2004) “Injury and disease”. In: Proceedings of the Global Conference on Animal Welfare: an OIE initiative (World Organisation for Animal Health), 23–25 February 2004, Paris, pp179-184

  • Brambell FWR (1965) “Report of the technical committee to enquire into the welfare of animals kept under intensive livestock husbandry systems.” Cmnd. 2836. London, HMSO

  • R.C. CAMBRE and W.W. BUICK. (1996). “Special challenges of maintaining wild animals in captivity in North America”. Rev. sci. tech. Off. int. Epiz., 15 (1), 251-266

  • Clubb R and Mason GJ (2007). “Natural behavioural biology as a risk factor in carnivore welfare: how analysing species differences could help zoos improve enclosures”. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 102:303-328C

  • Draper, S Harris. (2012). “The Assessment of Animal Welfare in British Zoos by Government appointed Inspectors.” Animals, 2:507-528

  • I J H Duncan (2004) “Pain, fear and distress”. In: Proceedings of the Global Conference on Animal Welfare: an OIE initiative (World Organisation for Animal Health), 23–25 February 2004, Paris, pp163-172

  • Fraser, D. (2004) “Applying science to animal welfare standards”. In: Proceedings of the Global Conference on Animal Welfare: an OIE initiative (World Organisation for Animal Health), 23–25 February 2004, Paris, pp121-127

  • Gregory, NG (2001) “Attitudes to animal welfare and the environment” in Baker, R et al (eds) Farm animals in research – can we meet the demands of ethics, welfare science and industry? Proceedings of ANZCCART conference. Adelaide, ANZCCART.

  • Kasanen IHE, Sorensen DB, Forkman B, Sandoe P. (2010). ‘Ethics of feeding: the omnivore dilemma’. Animal Welfare 19: 37-44.

  • B Kohn. (1994) “Zoo Animal Welfare”. Rev. sci. tech. Off. int. Epiz., 13 (1), 233-245

  • P Le Neindre, Guémené D, Arnould C, Leterrier C, Faure J. M, Prunier A, Meunier-Salaün M. C (2004). “Space, environmental design and behaviour: Effect of space and environment on animal welfare”. In: Proceedings of the Global Conference on Animal Welfare: an OIE initiative (World Organisation for Animal Health), 23–25 February 2004, Paris, pp135-141.

  • Lewandowski A (2003) “Surplus animals: the price of success”. In: “Animal Welfare Forum: the welfare of zoo animals.”(2003) Proceedings of the AVMA Animal Welfare Forum, 11th October 2002, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 223 (7), 981-983

  • Peter Linhart, David B Adams, Thomas Voracek (2008). “The International transportation of zoo animals: conserving biological diversity and protecting animal welfare.” Veterinaria italiana 44 (1) 49-57.

  • A Melino. “Animal transport and animal reaction during transport”. Animal Transportation Association.

  • Mellor DJ, Reid CSW. (1994) Concepts of animal wellbeing and predicting the impact of procedures on experimental animals”. In: Baker R, Jenkin G, Mellor DJ (eds) Improving the wellbeing of animal sin the research environment, Australian and New Zealand Council for the care of Animals in Research and Teaching, Glen Osmond, South Australia, p3-8.

  • D J Mellor, A C D Bayvel (2004) “The application of legislation, scientific guidelines and codified standards to advancing animal welfare.” In: Proceedings of the Global Conference on Animal Welfare: an OIE initiative (World Organisation for Animal Health), 23–25 February 2004, Paris, pp249-256.

  • Mellor DJ, Patterson-Kane E & Stafford KJ. (2009) The Sciences of animal welfare. Wiley Blackwell, Oxford, UK.D Mellor (2013). “When coping is not enough – promoting positive welfare states in animals” In: RSPCA Australia Scientific Seminar 2013 Proceedings: “When coping is not enough – promoting positive welfare states in animals”, held on February 26th 2013 at the National Convention Centre, Canberra. RSPCA Australia, pp2-13

  • Mench JA (2004) “Management, handling, and transport of farm animal.” In: Proceedings of the Global Conference on Animal Welfare: an OIE initiative (World Organisation for Animal Health), 23–25 February 2004, Paris, pp149-155

  • JC Petherick and J Rushden (1997) ‘Behavioural restriction’ in Appleby, MC and Hughes, BO (eds) Animal Welfare. Wallingford, CAB International

  • T Portas (2013). “Achieving positive animal welfare outcomes in zoos and aquariums” In: RSPCA Australia Scientific Seminar 2013 Proceedings: “When coping is not enough – promoting positive welfare states in animals”, held on February 26th 2013 at the National Convention Centre, Canberra. RSPCA Australia, pp46-50.

  • Rahman SA. (2004). “Animal Welfare: a developing country perspective”. In: Proceedings of the Global Conference on Animal Welfare: an OIE initiative (World Organisation for Animal Health), 23–25 February 2004, Paris, pp101-112

  • A B M Raj (2004). “Cultural, religious and ethical issues associated with animal welfare.” In: Proceedings of the Global Conference on Animal Welfare: an OIE initiative (World Organisation for Animal Health), 23–25 February 2004, Paris, pp235-241

  • Stamper E. (2004). “Animal transportation — An industry perspective” In: Proceedings of the Global Conference on Animal Welfare: an OIE initiative (World Organisation for Animal Health), 23–25 February 2004, Paris, pp77-78

  • DGM Wood Gush (1985) ‘The attainment of humane housing for farm livestock’ in Fox MW, and Mickley LD (eds)Advances in Animal Welfare science. Washington DC, the Humane Society of the United States. P47-55.

  • AATA, 2000. Animal Transportation Association. Manual for the Transportation of Live Animals, 2nd ed. Redhill: Harris Associates Limited

  • “Animal Welfare Forum: the welfare of zoo animals.”(2003) Proceedings of the AVMA Animal Welfare Forum, 11thOctober 2002, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 223 (7), 957-983.

  • “Good Zoos and Aquaria, A Guide to BIAZA Zoos and Aquariums.” (2013). British and Irish Association of Zoos and Aquariums (BIAZA)

  • “Understanding Animal Welfare – A GUIDE TO THE FIVE FREEDOMS AND THEIR APPLICATION TO WILD ANIMALS IN CAPTIVITY.” (2006). Born Free Foundation.

  • “The EU Zoo inquiry 2011 – An evaluation of the implementation and enforcement of EC Directive 1999/22, relating to the keeping of animals in zoos. Report findings and recommendations.” (2012) Written for the European coalition ENDCAP by the Born Free Foundation.

  • “Report on the welfare of non-domesticated species kept for companionship”. (2003). Companion Animal Welfare Council, UK.

  • “Companion animal welfare assessment” (2009). Companion Animal Welfare Council, UK.

  • “Animal Health and Welfare Strategy for Great Britain.” (2004). DEFRA (Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs) London, UK.

  • “A new Animal Health Strategy for the European Union (2007-2013) where ‘Prevention is better than cure’”. (2007). Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. European Commission

  • “The welfare of animals during transport” – Scientific Report of the Scientific Panel on Animal Health and Welfare on a request from the Commission related to the welfare of animals during transport (2004). European food safety authority (EFSA).

  • “Five Freedoms” (1979). FAWC.

  • “A complete guide to using the Zoo Exhibit Quick Audit Process (ZEQAP) – Zoo Exhibit Quick Audit Process; Auditing terrestrial mammal exhibits”. World Association for the Protection of Animals (WSPA).

  • Gregory NG. (2004). Physiology and behaviour of animal suffering. Universities Federation of Animal Welfare (UFAW). Blackwell Publishing.

  • Management and welfare of farm animals – The UFAW Handbook. (1988). Third edition. Bailliere Tindall, London.Rees PA. (2011). An introduction to zoo biology and management. Wiley Blackwell Publishing.

  • Maple TL, Perdue BM. (2013). Zoo Animal Welfare. Springer.

Specific Species

Mammals:
  • Wildpro – http://www.wildlifeinformation.org/ – The Wildpro® Electronic Encyclopaedia is designed as a freely available, one-stop source of information on the health and management of captive and free-living wild animals, and emerging infectious diseases.

  • Birkett LP, Newton-Fisher NE (2011) “How Abnormal Is the Behaviour of Captive, Zoo-Living Chimpanzees?” PLoS ONE 6(6): e20101. doi:10.1371/ journal.pone.002010

  • Breuer T, Ndoundou-Hockemba M, Fishlock V (2005) “First observation of tool use in wild gorillas.” PLoS Biol 3(11): e380

  • Clubb R, Rowcliffe M, Lee P, Mar KU, Moss C, Mason GJ. (2009). “Fecundity and population viability in female zoo elephants: problems and possible solutions.” In Animal Welfare, 18 (3): 237-247.

  • Clubb R, Mason G. (2002). “A Review of the Welfare of Zoo Elephants in Europe – A report commissioned by the RSPCA.” Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA).

  • Ferdowsian HR, Durham DL, Kimwele C, Kranendonk G, Otali E, et al. (2011) “Signs of Mood and Anxiety Disorders in Chimpanzees.” PLoS ONE 6(6): e19855. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0019855

  • Fernando P, Leimgruber P, Prasad T, Pastorini J (2012) “Problem-Elephant Translocation: Translocating the Problem and the Elephant?” PLoS ONE 7(12): e50917. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050917

  • Forthman DL (1998). “Toward optimum care for confined ungulates”. In Second Nature, pp236-261.

  • Gelling M, Montes I, Moorhouse TP, Macdonald DW (2010) “Captive Housing during Water Vole (Arvicola terrestris) Reintroduction: Does Short-Term Social Stress Impact on Animal Welfare?” PLoS ONE 5(3): e9791. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009791

  • Gelling M, Johnson PJ, Moorhouse TP, Macdonald DW (2012) “Measuring Animal Welfare within a Reintroduction: An Assessment of Different Indices of Stress in Water Voles Arvicola amphibius.” PLoS ONE 7(7): e41081. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041081

  • Hawkins P, Hubrecht R, Buckwell A, Cubitt S, Howard B, Jackson A, Poirier GM. (2010). “Refining rabbit care – a resource for those working with rabbits in research”. UFAW and RSPCA, UK.

  • Houpt, K., Houpt T.P., Johnson, J. L., Erb, H. N. and Yeon, S. C. (2001). “The effect of exercise deprivation on the behaviour and physiology of straight stall confined mares.” Animal Welfare 10 (3), 257-267

  • Lisa Kane, Debra Forthman, David Hancocks (2005). “Optimal Conditions for Captive Elephants: A Report by the Coalition for Captive Elephant Well-Being.”

  • Marino L, Frohoff T (2011) “Towards a New Paradigm of Non-Captive Research on Cetacean Cognition.” PLoS ONE 6(9): e24121. doi:10.1371/journal. pone.0024121

  • Masi S, Chauffour S, Bain O, Todd A, Guillot J, et al. (2012) “Seasonal Effects on Great Ape Health: A Case Study of Wild Chimpanzees and Western Gorillas.” PLoS ONE 7(12): e49805. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049805

  • Menargues A, Urios V, Mauri M. (2008) “Welfare assessment of captive Asian elephants (Elephus maximus) and Indian Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) using salivary cortisol measurement.” In Animal Welfare 17 (3): 305-312.

  • Miller LJ, Bettinger T, Mellen J. (2008) “The reduction of stereotypic pacing in tigers (Panthera tigris) by obstructing the view of neighbouring individuals.” In Animal Welfare 17 (3): 255-258.

  • Miller LJ, Mellen J, Greer T, Kuczaj SA. (2011). “The effects of education programmes on Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncates) behaviour.” In Animal Welfare, 20 (2): 159-172.

  • Muehlenbein MP, Ancrenaz M, Sakong R, Ambu L, Prall S, et al. (2012) “Ape Conservation Physiology: Fecal Glucocorticoid Responses in Wild Pongo pygmaeus morio following Human Visitation.” PLoS ONE 7(3): e33357. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0033357

  • Ryan SJ, Walsh PD (2011) “Consequences of Non-Intervention for Infectious Disease in African Great Apes.” PLoS ONE 6(12): e29030. doi:10.1371/ journal.pone.0029030

  • Shen-Jin L, Todd PA, Yan Y, Lin Y, Hongmei F, Wan-Hong W. (2010). ‘The effects of visitor density on sika deer (Cervus nippon) behaviour in Zhu-Yu-Wan Park, China. Animal Welfare 19: 61-65.

  • Steinmetz HW, Zingg R, Ossent P, Eulenberger U, Clauss M, Hatt JM. (2011). “Comparison of indoor and captive, free-roaming management in golden headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas) at Zurich Zoo.” In Animal Welfare 20 (2): 201-210.

  • Wobber V, Hare B (2011) “Psychological Health of Orphan Bonobos and Chimpanzees in African Sanctuaries”. PLoS ONE 6(6): e17147. doi:10.1371/ journal.pone.0017147

  • Yamanashi Y, Matsuzawa T. (2010). ‘Emotional consequences when chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) face challenges: individual differences in self-directed behaviours during cognitive tasks’. Animal Welfare 19: 25-30.

  • “EU ZOO INQUIRY 2011 DOLPHINARIA – A review of the keeping of whales and dolphins in captivity in the European Union and EC Directive 1999/22, relating to the keeping of wild animals in zoos.” Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society (WDCS) for the European coalition ENDCAP in association with the Born Free Foundation.

Birds:
  • Wildpro – http://www.wildlifeinformation.org/ – The Wildpro® Electronic Encyclopaedia is designed as a freely available, one-stop source of information on the health and management of captive and free-living wild animals, and emerging infectious diseases.

  • SA Collins, JA Archer, CJ Barnard (2008). “Welfare and mate choice in zebra finches: effect of handling regime and presence of cover”. Animal Welfare 17 (1): 11-17​

  • http://www.penn-jersey.com/  http://www.penn-jersey.com/ensuring-your-windows-are-bird-safe.
Reptiles: 
  • Wildpro – http://www.wildlifeinformation.org/ – The Wildpro® Electronic Encyclopaedia is designed as a freely available, one-stop source of information on the health and management of captive and free-living wild animals, and emerging infectious diseases.

  • Jorg-Peter Ewert, John E. Cooper, Tom Langton, Gilbert Matz, Kathryn Reilly, Helen Schwantje. (2004b). “Species specific provisions for Reptiles. Background information for the proposals presented by the Group of Experts on Amphibians and Reptiles. Part B” WORKING PARTY FOR THE PREPARATION OF THE FOURTH MULTILATERAL CONSULTATION OF PARTIES TO THE EUROPEAN CONVENTION FOR THE PROTECTION OF VERTEBRATE ANIMALS USED FOR EXPERIMENTAL AND OTHER SCIENTIFIC PURPOSES (ETS 123). Council of Europe.

  • Rees Davies R. (2002). “Post hibernation management of Mediterranean tortoises”. UK Vet volume 7, number 1. In:UK Vet Compendium of rabbit and exotic articles – a collection of rabbit and exotic related articles published in UK Vet 1998-2006. UK Vet Publications and Bayer plc. Pp107-109

  • Rees Davies R. (2004). “Respiratory disease in snakes. Part 1”. UK Vet volume 9, number 4. In: UK Vet Compendium of rabbit and exotic articles – a collection of rabbit and exotic related articles published in UK Vet 1998-2006. UK Vet Publications and Bayer plc. Pp115-120

  • Ryan TP (1987). “An introduction to pet iguanas”. Veterinary Technician vol 8, number 9. In: Exotic Animals – a veterinary handbook. A collection of articles from Veterinary Technician. (1995). Veterinary Learning Systems Co., Inc. USA., pp155-156

  • Warwick C, Arena P, Lindley S, Jessop M and Steedman C (2013) “Assessing reptile welfare using behavioural criteria” In Practice, BVA. 35:123-13

Amphibians:
  • Wildpro – http://www.wildlifeinformation.org/ – The Wildpro® Electronic Encyclopaedia is designed as a freely available, one-stop source of information on the health and management of captive and free-living wild animals, and emerging infectious diseases.

  • Archard GA, Goldsmith AR. (2010). ‘Euthanasia methods, corticosterone and haematocrit levels inXenopus laevis: evidence for differences in stress?’. Animal Welfare 19: 85-92.

  • Jorg-Peter Ewert, John E. Cooper, Tom Langton, Gilbert Matz, Kathryn Reilly, Helen Schwantje. (2004a). “Species specific provisions for Amphibians. Background information for the proposals presented by the Group of Experts on Amphibians and Reptiles. Part B”. WORKING PARTY FOR THE PREPARATION OF THE FOURTH MULTILATERAL CONSULTATION OF PARTIES TO THE EUROPEAN CONVENTION FOR THE PROTECTION OF VERTEBRATE ANIMALS USED FOR EXPERIMENTAL AND OTHER SCIENTIFIC PURPOSES (ETS 123). Council of Europe.

  • Poole, V.A. and S. Grow (eds.). 2012. Amphibian Husbandry Resource Guide, Edition 2.0. Association of Zoos and Aquariums, Silver Spring, MD.

Fish:
  • Wildpro – http://www.wildlifeinformation.org/ – The Wildpro® Electronic Encyclopaedia is designed as a freely available, one-stop source of information on the health and management of captive and free-living wild animals, and emerging infectious diseases.

  • Broom DM (2007). “Cognitive ability and sentience: Which aquatic animals should be protected?” Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, Vol. 75: 99–108.

  • S Chung (2008) “Appropriate maze methodology to study learning in fish” Journal of Undergraduate Life Sciences Vol 2, no 1, pp52-55.

  • Galhardo L, Correia J, Oliveira RF. (2008). “The effect of substrate availability on behavioural and physiological indicators of welfare in the African cichlid (Oreochromis mossambicus).” In Animal Welfare 17 (3): 239-254.

  • T. Håstein (2004). “Animal welfare issues relating to aquaculture.” In: Proceedings of the Global Conference on Animal Welfare: an OIE initiative (World Organisation for Animal Health), 23–25 February 2004, Paris, pp219-227

  • C. Johnston and P. Jungalwalla. “AQUATIC ANIMAL WELFARE GUIDELINES – Guidelines on welfare of fish and crustaceans in aquaculture and/or in live holding systems for human consumption” National Aquaculture Council of Australia.

  • Lewbart GA. (1993). “Care and handling of pet fish”. Veterinary Technician vol 14, number 8. In: Exotic Animals – a veterinary handbook. A collection of articles from Veterinary Technician. (1995). Veterinary Learning Systems Co., Inc. USA., pp161-165

  • Morris AL, Livengood EJ, Chapman FA. (2010). “Sharks for the aquarium and considerations for their selection”. University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) extension.

  • “Ornamental fish keeping – YOUR GUIDE TO KEEPING FISH HAPPY AND HEALTHY” (2012) British Veterinary Association – Animal Welfare Foundation (BVA-AWF).

  • “General approach to fish welfare and to the concept of sentience in fish – Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Animal Health and Welfare” (2009). The EFSA Journal, 954, 1-27.

Invertebrates:
  • Wildpro – http://www.wildlifeinformation.org/ – The Wildpro® Electronic Encyclopaedia is designed as a freely available, one-stop source of information on the health and management of captive and free-living wild animals, and emerging infectious diseases.

  • K Horvath, D Angeletti, G Nascetti and C Carere. (2013) ‘Invertebrate welfare: an overlooked issue’. Ann Ist Super Sanità. Vol. 49, No. 1: 9-17.

Enrichment and Training

  • L Carrasco, M Colell, M Calvo, MT Abello, M Velasco, S Posada. (2009) “Benefits of training/playing therapy in a group of captive lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla)”. In Animal Welfare, 18(1): 9-19

  • CE Caws, S Wehnelt, F Aureli. (2008). “The effect of a new vertical structure in mitigating aggressive behaviour in a large group of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).” Animal Welfare 17 (2): 149-154

  • Fairhurst GD, Frey MD, Reichert JF, Szelest I, Kelly DM, Bortolotti GR. (2011) “Does Environmental Enrichment Reduce Stress? An Integrated Measure of Corticosterone from Feathers Provides a Novel Perspective.” PLoS ONE 6(3): e17663. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017663

  • JK Kirkwood, C Kichenside and WA James (1989). “Training zoo animals.” In: Proceedings of an Animal Training Symposium organised by Universities Federation of Animal Welfare (UFAW), 26-27th September 1989, Cambridge, UK. UFAW, UK.

  • Laule G. (2003). “Positive reinforcement training and environmental enrichment; enhancing animal well-being”. In: “Animal Welfare Forum: the welfare of zoo animals.”(2003) Proceedings of the AVMA Animal Welfare Forum, 11thOctober 2002, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 223 (7), 957-983.

  • Meagher RK, Mason GJ (2012) “Environmental Enrichment Reduces Signs of Boredom in Caged Mink.” PLoS ONE 7(11): e49180. doi:10.1371/ journal.pone.0049180

  • JK O’Brien, S Heffernan, PC Thomson, PD McGreevy (2008). “Effect of positive reinforcement training on physiological and behavioural stress responses in the hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas)”. Animal Welfare 17 (2): 125-138

  • J Parry Jones (1989). “Practical and ethical problems of training birds of prey.” In: Proceedings of an Animal Training Symposium organised by Universities Federation of Animal Welfare (UFAW), 26-27th September 1989, Cambridge, UK. UFAW, UK.

  • Pyykonen T, Ahola L, Hanninen S, Mononen J. (2010). ‘Nest provision influences reproductive success in breeding blue fox vixens: a preliminary study’. Animal Welfare 19: 101-105

  • Leah Scott (1989). “Training non-human primates – meeting their behavioural needs.” In: Proceedings of an Animal Training Symposium organised by Universities Federation of Animal Welfare (UFAW), 26-27th September 1989, Cambridge, UK. UFAW, UK.

  • Salvanes AGV, Moberg O, Ebbesson LOE, Nilsen TO, Jensen K H, Braithwaite VA. (2013). “Environmental enrichment promotes neural plasticity and cognitive ability in fish”. Proc R Soc B volume 280, number 1767 20131331.

  • Ronald R. Swaisgood and David J. Shepherdson (2005). “Scientific Approaches to Enrichment and Stereotypies in Zoo Animals: What’s Been Done and Where Should We Go Next?” Zoo Biology, 24:499–518

  • Swaisgood RR (2007). “Current status and future directions of applied behavioural research for animal welfare and conservation.” Applied Animal Behav Sci 102: 139-162.

  • Vasconcellos AS, Guimaraes MABV, Oliveira CA, Ades C. (2009). “Environmental enrichment for maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus): group and individual effects.” In Animal Welfare, 18(3): 289-300.

  • N Waran, P McGreevy and R A Casey, (2002). “Training methods and Horse Welfare”. In ‘The Welfare of the Horse’. Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp151-180

  • DL Wells, RM Irwin (2008) “Auditory stimulation as enrichment for zoo-housed Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).” Animal Welfare 17 (4): 335-340

  • “Animal Training – A review and commentary on current practice.” (1990). Proceedings of a Symposium organised by Universities Federation of Animal Welfare (UFAW), 26-27th September 1989, Cambridge, UK. UFAW, UK.

Legislation

  • “Zoo licensing Act 1981 – Guide to the Act’s provisions”. (2012a). DEFRA (Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs) London, UK.

  • “Keeping wild animals in captivity, Kwazulu-natal, South Africa. Registration, permits, and licenses for keeping wild animals in captivity and for the exhibition, breeding or relocation, or trade, sale or exchange (alienation), of such animals.” (2013). Draft document. Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife.

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