Animals that have good mental health will engage with their environment more, be less aggressive, less fearful and are more peaceful, exploratory and at ease with their surroundings. Enrichment can support this positive mental welfare and encourages natural behaviours in captive animals.
Enrichment is not a substitute for poor enclosure design, a poor diet, lack of healthcare or any other poor management activities. While it is an important aspect of positive animal welfare, alone it cannot compensate for sub-standard care that results in poor welfare.
Enrichment is about creating choices for animals so they feel more in control of their environment.
While some enrichment requires regular changes, some – such as simply providing a species-appropriate environment – can stay the same. Either way, a variety is important to prevent boredom and frustration.
Enrichment is increasing the complexity of the environment in a way that is meaningful to the animal’s genetic and behavioural needs and addresses species-specific needs.
Providing enrichment can enhance the zoo environment for an animal, encouraging them to explore and interact with their surroundings. Enrichment also enhances the visitor experience as the animals show more natural behaviours and are much more active.
Enrichment for the animals also enhances the visitor experience as the animals show more natural behaviours and are much more active.
The goal of any enrichment programme should be to develop ideas that will provide a species-appropriate stimulating environment, that promotes positive behaviours, remembering that both species and individuals will have different needs.
We regularly add enrichment ideas and suggestions to this page, often taken from positive enrichment actions that have been put in place as a result of our projects, showing that even facilities with very limited resources and time can apply enrichment activities that promote improved animal welfare.
Take a look at Hose2Habitat’s website for useful ideas on how to create enriching environments for animals using old hoses.
Enrichment should be daily and incorporates both infrastructural (which is more permanent) environmental enrichment, such as climbing frames, substrates, water (pools), scratching posts, social opportunities, and daily behavioural enrichment, such as scatter feeding, puzzle feeders, novel toys, olfactory challenges etc. Both enrichment approaches must be to encourage goal orientated behaviours. These behaviours are usually rewarding and positive and animals have evolved to need to carry them out. For example, multiple climbing platforms in a binturong enclosure, provides choice and satisfies their arboreal behavioural need. Scatter feeding or hiding food in rotten logs for sun bears, satisfies both the digging and foraging behavioural need and meets physiologically evolved behaviours which utilises their strong powerful front paws and sharp claws.
When deciding what environmental and behavioural enrichment is required, you might want to consider the What, Why, When approach. This is a simple rule of thumb to help you develop an enrichment programme:
1)What does this species spend time and energy on in the wild? The more time and energy spent on a behaviour can indicate how motivated that animal is to carry out the behaviour, and conversely how frustrated it will become if it cannot carry out the behaviour.
2)Why does it carry out this behaviour? This helps prioritise the behaviours, as not all behaviours are equal. If the behaviour is a result of physiological evolution that supports the species and individual survival, it is probably important. Combine this with how much time and energy is spent on the behaviour in the wild, and it can provide guidance on what behaviours to encourage in captivity for positive experiences.
3) When do species need to express certain behaviours? Animals will have different behavioural needs at different times of the day, season and life cycle. For example, nocturnal animals will need to be more stimulated at night, while pregnant or nursing mothers will require appropriate refuge and young animals will need appropriate social interactions and environmental stimulation for learning.
Always consider the safety of animals and staff before starting an enrichment programme